Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common mandatory reporting STD (STI) in Quebec. It is often asymptomatic and, if left untreated, can lead to complications affecting the genital organs and fertility.
The screening technique (PCR or NAAT) detects the bacteria’s DNA or RNA (genetic material) after amplification. Results are generally positive about 2 weeks after infection. The best results are obtained when the very first milliliters of urine are collected without prior disinfection in women or with/without prior disinfection in men after at least one hour without urinating. Vaginal or endocervical (cervix) sampling may be more optimal for women also scheduled for a gynecological examination.
A positive (reactive) result indicates the presence of an active bacterial infection. A negative (non-reactive) result only indicates the probable absence of infection at the time of sample collection. Higher-risk individuals should be regularly retested for infection or reinfection. If you are infected, your sexual partner(s) should also be treated. Some samples produce results that are more difficult to interpret. These results are identified as “ambiguous,” “inhibition,” “uninterpretable” or “indeterminate.” The test must then be repeated on a new sample.