The beta-2-globulin fraction represents the total of the complement C3 and IgA, two proteins with widely different functions.
C3 or complement C3 is a liver protein involved in the “complement pathway”, which is a normal defensive mechanism. C3 can below due to increased use by the body (recurrent infections, autoimmune diseases, angioedema, various kidney or liver disorders, malnutrition, etc.) or, rarely because of a genetic defect limiting its production. C3 can rise in acute-phase reactions (inflammation), certain cancers, ulcerative colitis, thyroids, sarcoidosis, etc.
IgAs are one of the three main antibody groups. IgA levels are interpreted by taking into account the three fractions of gamma globulins. Whereas low IgA levels are very rare (immunosuppressive drugs, IgG or IgM multiple myeloma, etc.), polyclonal elevations can be found in mucous membrane infections, autoimmune diseases, and chronic inflammation conditions (rheumatoid arthritis), alcoholic liver cirrhosis, etc. Isolated increases in IgA levels are rare (IgA multiple myeloma). Interpretation of the electrophoresis pattern indicates, if any, the likely nature of the situation.