Anti-ENAs (anti-extractable nuclear antigens) are antibodies directed against several dozen antigens found in the nucleus of connective tissue cells (flexible or rigid fibres such as collagen, the membranes enveloping organs, joints, tendons, supportive structure for small blood vessels, skin, etc.). The formation of antibodies directed against the normal components of cells is at the core of autoimmune diseases, including pernicious anemia, type 1 (juvenile) diabetes, certain thyroid diseases, etc. When the anti-ENAs are positive, it could be indicative of collagen vascular disease or connective tissue diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren’s syndrome (dry eye syndrome), polymyositis, limited or diffuse scleroderma or mixed conjunctivitis, etc.
The precise diagnosis of each of these conditions depends on the particular type of anti-ENA antibody present (SDM, RNP, SSA, SSB, JO-1, SCL-70, CENP-B and others). Individual results appear in your report following any positive anti-ENA results and are accompanied by an interpretation by a hematologist.