Gonorrhea is a mandatory reporting infection of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria. It is an STD (STI) that can lead to serious complications if undetected or left untreated. Among men, it often presents as an inflammation of the urethra (urethritis), while among women there may be inflammation of the cervix (cervicitis). In both sexes, the infection of other sites is generally asymptomatic.
The screening technique (PCR or NAAT) detects the bacteria’s DNA or RNA (genetic material) after amplification. Results are generally positive 7 days after infection. Good results are obtained when the very first milliliters of urine are collected after at least one hour without urinating , without prior disinfection in women and with or without disinfection in men.
A positive (reactive) result indicates the presence of an active bacterial infection. A negative (non-reactive) result indicates the probable absence of infection at the time of sample collection. Higher-risk individuals should be regularly retested for infection. The sexual partners of individuals who test positive must also be treated. Some samples produce results that are more difficult to interpret. These results are identified as “ambiguous,” “inhibition,” “uninterpretable” or “indeterminate.” The test must then be repeated on a new sample.
A hot zone is a section of a facility (sometimes an entire facility or even a city district) where there is a high risk of contamination by patients with an infectious disease. All individuals entering a hot zone must respect appropriate protective measures. By analogy, “cold zone” and “warm zone” are used to refer to areas where there is no infected individual or only individuals suspected of having an infection.