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Cystine Crystals

Cystine crystals are not found in the urine of normal individuals. The presence of cystine crystals almost always indicates “cystinuria,” a disease affecting the metabolism of three of the 20 amino acids that make up proteins. A reabsorption problem of these three amino acids (arginine, lysine and ornithine) causes the overproduction of cystine, a very insoluble product that tends to form crystals in the urine and, more importantly, causes the repeated formation of cystine stones.

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Breast cancer

Breast cancer: This is a malignant tumour made up of many cancerous cells. It should be noted that breast cancer is not the most common cause of breast pain, as patients of this disease are often asymptomatic.