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Urinary tract infections are the most common abnormality detected in a urine test. These infections are characterized by the presence of numerous leukocytes (positive leukocyte esterase test) and bacteria (often with a positive nitrite test). However, bacteria can also be seen when the specimen is contaminated during urine collection. In cases of contamination, the bacteria will be accompanied by a small number of leukocytes. The presence of numerous squamous cells (see if this observation is noted) suggests that the bacteria could have come from external genital tracts. However, a positive nitrite test points strongly to a urinary tract infection.

Term of the Week

Breast cancer

Breast cancer: This is a malignant tumour made up of many cancerous cells. It should be noted that breast cancer is not the most common cause of breast pain, as patients of this disease are often asymptomatic.