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Anti-HBc Antibody

Anti-HBc IgG

Anti-HBc (IgG and IgM) antibodies are the body’s first response to a hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. These antibodies are directed against a portion of the HBV called the core. Anti-HBc IgG and IgM appear shortly after the symptoms and onset of the virus surface antigen (HBsAg). IgM arrives first and is then replaced by IgG. Anti-HBc IgG are interpreted in light of clinic factors and the results of other hepatitis B markers, particularly HBsAg and anti-HBs.

A negative anti-HBc IgG result may indicate the absence of a recent or previous HBV infection (negative HBsAg and anti-HBs). However, a developing infection cannot be ruled out. The combination of negative anti-HBc IgG and HBsAg results, but positive anti-HBs results indicates an individual that has been vaccinated against hepatitis B. In combination with positive HBsAg/negative anti-HBs, the negative anti-HBc IgG test may indicate an individual in the acute phase of the disease or a reactivation of the virus in a chronic carrier.

A positive anti-HBc IgG result may indicate that the individual has eliminated the virus and is now immune (negative HBsAg/positive anti-HBs) or is in a recovery phase (negative HBsAg and anti-HBs / negative or positive IgM, anti-HBc). When combined with a positive HBsAg, an active chronic infection may be suspected.

Term of the Week

Creatine Kinase MM (CK-MM)

CK (creatine kinase) is an enzyme (protein) found in several tissues, including muscles and the heart. Depending on the tissue, different forms of CK are present: CK-MM is primarily present in skeletal muscles, CK-MB represents 30% of CK from the heart, while CK-BB comes from the brain and smooth muscle, such as the intestinal walls. Atypical forms of CK (macro CK1 and macro CK2) can also be present. CK electrophoresis is most useful when muscular or cardiac disease does not seem to be responsible for the increased level of total CK.